Increasing hospital-acquired infections have generated much attention over the last decade. There is evidence that hygienic cleaning has a role in the control of hospital-acquired infections. This study aimed to evaluate the potential impact of one additional cleaner by using microbiological standards based on aerobic colony counts and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin-resistant S. aureus.
We introduced an additional cleaner into two matched wards from Monday to Friday, with each ward receiving enhanced cleaning for six months in a crossover design. Ten hand-touch sites on both wards were screened weekly using standardized methods and patients were monitored for methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection throughout the year-long study. Patient and environmental methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates were characterized using molecular methods in order to investigate temporal and clonal relationships.
Enhanced cleaning was associated with a 32.5% reduction in levels of microbial contamination at hand-touch sites when wards received enhanced cleaning (P.< 0.0001: 95% CI 20.2%, 42.9%). Near-patient sites (lockers, overbed tables and beds) were more frequently contaminated with methicillin-resistant S. aureus/S. aureus than sites farther from the patient (P = 0.065). Genotyping identified indistinguishable strains from both hand-touch sites and patients. There was a 26.6% reduction in new methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections on the wards receiving extra cleaning, despite higher methicillinresistant S. aureus patient-days and bed occupancy rates during enhanced cleaning periods (P = 0.032: 95% CI 7.7%, 92.3%). Adjusting for methicillin-resistant S. aureus patient-days and based upon nine new methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections seen during routine cleaning, we expected 13 new infections during enhanced cleaning periods rather than the four that actually occurred. Clusters of new methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections were identified 2 to 4 weeks after the cleaner left both wards. Enhanced cleaning saved the hospital £30,000 to £70,000.
Introducing one extra cleaner produced a measurable effect on the clinical environment, with apparent benefit to patients regarding methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection. Molecular epidemiological methods supported the possibility that patients acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus from environmental sources. These findings suggest that additional research is warranted to further clarify the environmental, clinical and economic impact of enhanced hygienic cleaning as a component in the control of hospital-acquired infection.
Increasing hospital-acquired infections have generated much attention over the last decade. The public has linked these infections with their experience of dirty hospitals, but the precise role of cleaning in the control of infection remains unknown . Finding evidence for benefit from routine cleaning is difficult because there are no measurable standards available. This means that healthcare environments are assessed by visual inspection only, which may fulfill aesthetic obligations but does not provide a scientific assessment of the infection risk for patients .
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the main causes of hospital-acquired infection. Hospitals provide a long-term reservoir for MRSA, since it can survive for months in the environment [1,3]. It can be found on general surfaces such as floors and furniture, and on clinical equipment [2,4-6]. Certain sites, such as curtains, beds, lockers and overbed tables, tend to harbor MRSA more frequently than others [7,8]. These sites are often situated right beside the patient [8,9]. For these reasons, MRSA was chosen as an indicator organism in proposed microbiological standards for surface-level hygiene in hospitals .
Patients generally acquire MRSA from hands, and it is possible that healthcare workers transmit MRSA via hands after touching contaminated environmental surfaces [5,10]. This transmission cycle could be broken by more conscientious hand-hygiene but it is notoriously difficult to get everyone to clean their hands at the appropriate time [11,12]. When staff are busy, infection control precautions go awry, including hand washing and cleaning of equipment . It has already been suggested that the limitations of hand hygiene could be mitigated by concentrating resources on cleaning hand-touch sites [8,10].
The main aim of this prospective cross-over study was to introduce one additional cleaner into a surgical ward from Monday to Friday and measure the effect on the clinical environment. After 6 months the cleaner was switched to another matched surgical ward so that each ward acted as a control for the other. We also hoped to investigate the transmission pathways between patients and the environment using molecular epidemiological methods.
Two surgical wards with endemic MRSA were matched for bed numbers, bed occupancy rates, floor area, staffing levels, case mix, antibiotic consumption, cleaning schedules and state and maintenance of internal fabric. Each ward contains 21 beds, with two side-rooms at the ward entrance and the remaining beds in groups of three to five in open cubicles on either side of the ward. Ward A is an acute male surgical ward situated on the first floor of a Victorian block, and Ward B, directly above, is for females, although each occasionally hosts patients of the opposite sex. Most patients were admitted for general surgical procedures, with occasional vascular and orthopaedic cases. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis for general surgical cases is amoxicillin, gentamicin and metronidazole, with cephalosporins used for patients allergic to penicillin. The wards share clinical staff and cleaning is performed by the same domestic team to a set specification . Bed occupancy rates are routinely monitored by Greater Glasgow & Clyde NHS Trust. In 2005, each ward experienced 20 new cases of MRSA, most thought to be ward-acquired.
We screened 10 hand-touch sites on both wards every week for 1 year in order to ascertain overall aerobic colony counts, presence of MRSA and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) [7,8]. Once-weekly screening took place on different days after the ward had received its routine daily clean. Sites chosen were hand-touch sites at bedside areas (patient lockers, overbed tables and bed frames), clinical equipment (patient hoist, infusion pump and blood pressure (BP) stand), sites at the nurses’ work station (computer keyboard, desk and patient notes) and a side-room door handle. Patient curtains were not included because it was not possible to replace these outside of routine procedures. Hand-touch sites were sampled from one ward hoist, BP stand and computer keyboard but from different sites representing the remaining items throughout the ward, excluding those in the isolation rooms. Screening was continued for 7 weeks after completion of the study in order to monitor any residual effects.
Both wards adhered to identical infection control, screening and antimicrobial policies during the year. Any change in routine screening policy would have confounded the effect of cleaning as a single intervention, since it has already been shown to be an effective control mechanism in its own right . Patients awaiting surgery were routinely screened pre-admission or on the ward if they had been transferred from another unit, hospital or nursing home, or had a history of recent hospital admission, prior MRSA or recent contact with MRSA. All patients with newly diagnosed infections were also screened for MRSA, along with other clinically relevant specimens, in order to detect ward-acquired MRSA infection. Such infections were diagnosed by senior surgical staff using national criteria for surgical site, catheter-associated and respiratory infections . Those patients with no prior history of MRSA, who had been on the ward for >48 hours, had evidence of infection, and from whom the laboratory isolated MRSA were regarded as new cases of MRSA infection. These, along with known MRSA cases, were then screened every week until discharge from the ward.
Management of patients with MRSA
Patients with MRSA were placed in isolation and managed according to local infection control policies. They were screened at carrier sites, started on a 5-day topical clearance regimen (chlorhexidine washes, mupirocin nasal cream and Corsodyl™ throat spray), and treated with appropriate antibiotics. Patients situated nearby were also screened for MRSA after any new case was found on the ward. If there were no isolation rooms available, patients were cohorted or moved to another ward; this included the other study ward. MSSA acquisition and infection were not audited during the study.
Enhanced cleaning protocol
Enhanced cleaning began on Ward A in July 2006. The study domestic cleaned from 0730 h until 1530 h each weekday, with holiday and sickness cover provided by a colleague. Both cleaners were recruited from the existing domestic pool and trained to clean hand-touch sites. The study specification included all near-patient hand-touch sites two to three times per day, hand-touch sites at the nurses’ station one to two times per day and clinical equipment one to two times per day regardless of nurses’ cleaning responsibilities. The study cleaner also cleaned all door handles on the ward two to three times per day as well as items such as plastic wall-mounted racks for leaflets, visitors’ chairs and hand-touch sites in the ward office and kitchen.
Day-to-day management responsibilities fell to senior nurses but the cleaners remained professionally accountable to the domestic supervisor. Routine ward cleaning continued as usual, including regular quality control audits on environmental cleaning . Routine cleaning comprised 2 to 3 hours each morning, concentrating on floors and bathroom facilities. There was a ‘spot-check’ performed later on during the day, in case toilets, in particular, required further cleaning attention. Equipment and cleaning consumables were standard NHS issue, stored separately and maintained according to current protocol. Consumables were chiefly CINCH™ detergent (AGMA, Haltwhistle, UK) and water and Tuffie™ wipes (Health Care Services, Nottinghamshire, UK). Disinfectants are not routinely used on these wards. The extra cleaner only operated on one ward at a time for a period of 6 months before being moved to the other ward. Each ward therefore acted as a control for the other. There was no additional cleaning performed out-of-hours, including weekends.
Total weekly MRSA patient-days were estimated by calculating all MRSA-positive patient-days each week for each ward . This was done by prospective auditing of all microbiological specimens submitted from both wards and knowledge of patient admission and discharge dates throughout the study. In addition, every patient with MRSA infection and/or persistent colonization was screened weekly until discharge. Given that we did not screen every new admission to the ward, we probably underestimated the number of MRSA patient-days during the study, but this would have been consistent for both wards and study periods given the cross-over design. All cases of MRSA infection were identified promptly, whether acquired on the ward or before admission to the ward. Patients with MRSA infection are known to shed the organism into the environment more readily than those who are merely colonised .
Clinical samples were processed in the clinical laboratory according to standard operating procedures. Dipslides (Biotrace®, Bridgend, UK) were used for environmental screening; these were coated with Baird-Parker (for staphylococci) and nutrient agars (for aerobic colony counts) [7,8,14,17]. Colonial growth was subjected to both quantitative (cfu/cm2) and qualitative assessment . One dipslide was used to screen adjacent sites, with each side pressed against the site for 5 seconds at a pressure of approximately 25 g/cm2 .
After sampling, dipslides were incubated at 30°C in air for 48 hours. Microbial growth on nutrient agar was quantified as <2.5 cfu/cm2, 2.5 to 12 cfu/cm2, 12 to 40 cfu/cm2, and 40 to 100 cfu/cm2, according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Black colonies on Baird Parker were identified to genus level by colonial morphology and Gram film. Gram-positive cocci were differentiated by catalase test and staphylococci designated S. aureus or coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) by Staph-plus (Pastorex®, Stockport, UK). Coagulase-positive isolates were subcultured onto MRSA chromogenic agar (Oxoid, UK) and incubated overnight at 37°C in air. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Vitek® system (bioMerieux, Basingstoke, UK) standardized in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.
Scottish MRSA reference laboratory methods
Clinical and environmental MRSA were sent to the Scottish MRSA Reference Laboratory, which confirmed identification by latex agglutination and DNase test. All isolates were subjected to PCR detection of S. aureus species-specific nuc gene, followed by PCR for the mecA gene [19,20]. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing of SmaI-(Invitrogen, UK) digested DNA was performed by a modification of a previously described method . Briefly, S. aureus colonies from overnight cultures were incorporated into agarose plugs. After bacterial lysis, genomic DNA was digested using SmaI. PFGE was performed by clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) electrophoresis with a CHEF-mapper system (Bio-Rad Laboratories, California, USA). The fragments were separated with a linear ramped pulse time of 6.8 to 63.8 seconds over a period of 23 hours at 14°C. Gels were analysed using DNA analysis software GelCompar II version 5.1 (Applied Maths, Belgium) using the Dice correlation co-efficient. A dendrogram was generated using UPGMA with a tolerance of 1.5%.
Hygiene status analysis
The standard set for finding a potential pathogen is <1 cfu/cm2 . For this study, we chose both MRSA and MSSA as indicator organisms . A second standard states that total aerobic colony counts (ACCs) from a hand-touch site should not exceed 2.5 to 5 cfu/cm2 [2,23]. Exceeding these levels suggests insufficient cleaning, masks the presence of a pathogen or implies an increased chance of finding a pathogen with similar epidemiological properties, for example, CNS and S. aureus . We therefore defined a hygiene failure as a site with ACC greater than 2.5 cfu/cm2.
Epidemiological and cost analyses
Environmental screening data and cases of hospital-acquired MRSA infection were modelled against routine and extra cleaning periods, MRSA patient-days and bed occupancy rates. Any potential transmission between patients and environment were investigated using molecular typing results, dates of isolation and location. Typing also allowed us to ascertain longevity of unique strains in the environment.
Since the project began in July, this allowed each ward to receive 6 months of enhanced cleaning to encompass both winter and summer months. The project was presented to domestic, nursing and medical staff and to the Trust Infection Control Committee for approval and comments before it was launched. It was approved by the R & D department and Ethics committee at the study hospital.
We calculated the overall costs of new MRSA infections potentially saved by the efforts from an extra cleaner. The study cleaner earned £12,320 pa and one new case of MRSA infection was assumed to cost £9,000 [24,25]. Cost of cleaning consumables was included in the calculation.
From previous data we expected a background rate of two to four hygiene failures per week . The study was powered to detect a 50% reduction in hygiene failures over a 6-month period, with powers of 97% assuming a background rate of four per week in the normally cleaned ward, 93% with a background rate of three, and 81% with a background rate of two. We expected to find about 20 new MRSA cases on the control ward over the year, assumed to have been acquired on the ward. This only has a power of about 44% to detect a 50% reduction in the numbers of MRSA cases.
The main test of the hypothesis that extra cleaning has an effect on ACC is based upon a linear regression of the log total ACC with terms of cleaning, ward, period and quarter used to investigate the effect of enhanced cleaning on total ACC. A log transformation was required to satisfy the normality assumption in the linear regression and residual plots were used to verify that this assumption was appropriate. This analysis is more powerful than an analysis of hygiene failures, since ACC is a quantitative measurement and hygiene failure is a categorization of that. The study was powered in terms of hygiene failures, and the powers for ACC analysis will be higher as it is a quantitative measurement rather than a categorical variable. Binomial logistic regression models with factors for ward, cleaning and site were used to estimate the effect of enhanced cleaning on environmental levels of MRSA/MSSA and hygiene failures. Poisson log-linear regression models were used to estimate the effect of enhanced cleaning on new MRSA infections in a ward adjusting for MRSA patient-days and ward, and interaction tests were used to assess the differences in effect over the two wards. Significance levels of 5% were used for the pre-specified hypotheses and 95% confidence intervals for the estimated effects, which, for the overall effect of enhanced relative to routine cleaning, were adjusted for ward differences.
Overall levels of microbial growth
Figure 1 (see PDF version) shows the total quantity of microbial growth recovered from both wards over the year and for 2 months after the study finished. New patient MRSA infections are also indicated. ACCs were 32.5% less with enhanced cleaning compared with normal cleaning (P.< 0.0001; 95% CI 20.2%, 42.9%) (Table 1) (see PDF version). Ward B had an overall 19.0% lower ACC than Ward A (P.= 0.015; 95% CI 4.3%, 31.4%). There was no residual evidence of any temporal effects of period (P.= 0.58) or quarter (P.= 0.18). In Ward B, the extra cleaning was associated with a 45.4% reduction in ACC (P.< 0.0001; 95% CI 33.8%, 55.1%), whereas it was only associated with a 16.5% reduction in ACC for Ward A (P.= 0.21; 95% CI 36.7% reduction,-10.1% increase).
The rate of hygiene failures with routine cleaning averaged 3.2 per week, as anticipated. Over both periods the enhanced cleaning was associated with a 50.3% reduction in the odds of a hygiene failure (95% CI 33.8%, 62.7% reduction), though there was evidence of a different effect between the two wards, P.< 0.0001, and the two periods (P.= 0.0002). In period 1 there were 86 hygiene failures in Ward B (normal cleaning) and 73 in Ward A (extra cleaning), corresponding to a 21.0% reduction (95% CI 45.6% reduction, 14.8% increase) in the odds of having a hygiene failure at a site with enhanced cleaning. In period 2 there were 82 hygiene failures in Ward A (normal cleaning) and 27 in Ward B (extra cleaning), corresponding to a 74.7% reduction (95% CI 84.3%, 59.3%) in the odds of having a hygiene failure with enhanced cleaning. In Ward A, where the extra cleaner was used in the first period, the odds of hygiene failure was 15.3% lower (95% CI 41.8% reduction, 23.5% increase) when the extra cleaner was used. In Ward B, the odds of hygiene failure was 76.5% lower (95% CI 85.4%, 62.1%) when the extra cleaner was used.
Effect on environmental MSSA and MRSA
MRSA was recovered from 12 sites when the wards received extra cleaning compared with 16 sites when the wards were being routinely cleaned (P.= 0.45) (Table 1) (see PDF version). This was in contrast to the number of MSSA isolates recovered during routine and enhanced cleaning periods, since MSSA was recovered from 37 sites on wards receiving enhanced cleaning and from 30 sites on wards during routine cleaning periods (P.= 0.37).
Site contamination of MRSA and MSSA
There was some evidence for different amounts of MRSA/MSSA across the sites (P.= 0.065) (data not shown). Sites more frequently contaminated with MSSA/MRSA were the bedside locker (17 isolates), overbed table (13 isolates) and bed frame (12 isolates). These are the three sites closest to the patient. There was less contamination on the infusion pump, BP stand and computer keyboard. Whether or not the ward had enhanced cleaning did not affect the site contamination rankings (P.= 0.52), nor did the ward on which sites were located (P.= 0.15). The least-contaminated site throughout the study was a touch pad on the infusion pump.
Bed occupancy rates, MRSA patient-days and number of positive MRSA screens
There was little difference in bed occupancy rates between the two wards throughout the study, although both had higher rates during their respective extra cleaning periods (Table 1) (see PDF version). Ward A had bed occupancy rates of 89.7% during routine cleaning and 90.5% during enhanced cleaning; Ward B had rates of 85.7% during routine cleaning months and 91.8% when receiving extra cleaning. MRSA-positive patient-days ranged from 0 to 25 per week (Table 1) (see PDF version). The total number of MRSA patient-days on Ward B during routine cleaning was 95, giving an average of 3.65 MRSA patient-days each week for the 6-month period. During enhanced cleaning, the total number of MRSA patient-days was 204, giving an average of 8 MRSA patient-days per week for this period. Thus, Ward B’s clean period experienced more than double the number of MRSA patient-days than the period without extra cleaning. For Ward A, total MRSA patient-days during routine cleaning were 232, giving an average of 9 MRSA patient-days per week. During enhanced cleaning, the total was 271, giving an average of 10.42 MRSA patient-days per week for this period. As for Ward B, total MRSA patient-days were greater for the period without extra cleaning, but not by such a large margin.
The total number of positive MRSA screens on each ward for both periods were examined after removal of duplicates: there were 17 MRSA-positive patients identified on Ward A during the first period (enhanced clean) and 14 during the second period (routine cleaning); on Ward B, there were five MRSA-positive patients during the first period (routine clean) and nine during the second period (enhanced clean). These numbers include the patients who acquired their MRSA on the wards.
Number of new MRSA infections
During normal cleaning there were a total of nine new cases of MRSA infection on both wards with a total of 327 MRSA patient-days. During enhanced cleaning periods, there were 475 MRSA patient-days overall, leading to an expected 13.1 (= (9/327) x 475) new cases of MRSA occurring during the months the wards were receiving extra cleaning. This assumes that there is a relationship between new MRSA cases and MRSA patient-days, and that enhanced cleaning has the same effect as routine. In fact only four new MRSA infections were observed during enhanced cleaning periods. The rate of new MRSA infections during enhanced cleaning was 26.6% (95% CI 7.7%, 92.3%) of the rate during normal cleaning (P.= 0.032). It is important to emphasize that the power to detect a reduction in new cases of MRSA was low to start with, and the overall low numbers occurring during the study must be interpreted with caution.
There were no changes in antibiotic policies during the study, nor differences in antibiotic consumption, save for a small increase in use of linezolid on Ward A for complicated MRSA infections. There were no additional hand-hygiene interventions other than routine educational visits from the infection control team including poster reminders. We did not formally audit hand-hygiene compliance.
A simple cost analysis was performed. The study cleaner earned £12,320 per annum and consumables were £1,100; this was offset against the number of patients potentially spared MRSA infection. The average cost of one hospital-acquired surgical site infection (SSI) caused by MRSA is estimated as £9,000 [24,25]. If it is correct to assume that five to nine patients were potentially spared MRSA SSI, the hospital saved in the region of £45,000 to £81,000 minus the costs of the cleaner and consumables for one year. This gave overall cost savings of £31,600 to £67,600.
Tables 2 and 3 (see PDF version) show the PFGE profiles of patient and environmental MRSA strains and their isolation dates. Not all isolates were typed, since some did not survive storage. On Ward A, there were six different PFGE profiles from both patients and the environment (Table 2). Of these, one strain (15b) was recovered from patient notes on 25 October 2006 (E4A), two new patient infections on 14 February 2007 and 18 February 2007 (P14A, P15A), overbed table on 19 February 2007 (E11A) and a BP stand on 21 July 2007 (E16A). Strain 15z/15-71 was isolated from a desk on 4 July 2007 (E15A), followed by a new patient on 12 July 2007 (P18A). The dendrogram suggests a close genetic relationship between these two sets of strains (Figure 2). In addition, there were similar strains isolated from a desk on 13 February 2007, bed on 19 February 2007 and bed again on 22 June 2007 (E9A, E10A and E13A) (Figure 2).
On Ward B, there were four different PFGE profiles from both patients and the environment (Table 3). Of these, two types were isolated from the environment before they appeared as new infections in patients. Type 15c was found from an infusion pump on 8 March 2007 (E9B) before it was isolated from two new patients on 16 July 2007 and 24 July 2007 (P8B, P9B); type 16b was found on a computer keyboard on 25 September 2006 (E5B) and overbed table on 6 October 2006 (E6B) before it was recovered from a patient on 11 April 07 (P7B). Again, the dendrogram suggests a close genetic relationship between these strains (Figure 2). Two further clusters are shown, one involving two new patients (P1B, P2B) on 11 August 2006 and 27 November 2006, a door handle on 8 May 2007 (P10B) and a bedside locker on 22 June 2007 (P11B). The second shows four similar strains from a locker, bedside table and BP stand during the first month of the study (E1-4B). There were thus indistinguishable strains from patients, which were later found in the environment, and vice-versa (Figure 2). Indistinguishable strains were recovered from different sites around the ward, sometimes weeks apart [3,5-7]. Not surprisingly, some strains appeared to move between wards. Staff were not screened during this study, however, which means that a carrier role by staff cannot be excluded in any transmission hypotheses [6,7].
This study has demonstrated the effect of one extra cleaner in a prospective cross-over study on two surgical wards. Despite the fact that the cleaning intervention was only delivered on weekdays, it still had a significant impact on the overall levels of microbial contamination from hand-touch sites. The effect was greater on Ward B than for Ward A, one reason for this being the fact that environmental screening was more likely to be performed on a Monday in Ward A during the first few months of the trial. It is possible that the study cleaner did not have time to remove all the accumulated dirt from the weekend. Whilst this creates bias for the results overall, it does provide an indication of the sensitivity of the monitoring method used.
Ward A had the extra cleaner during the first 6 months of the study and the small impact from enhanced cleaning could be evidence of a carry-over effect or an effect of practice. It is likely to be the latter, as there is little evidence of an effect from the extra cleaning in the first 6 months – a reduction of 16.7% (P = 0.19; 95% CI 36.2, -8.9%), while there is a large reduction of 45.3% during the second 6 months (P.< 0.0001; 95% CI 32.8%, 55.5%).
A notable increase is seen in the overall colony counts on Ward A following withdrawal of the cleaner after 6 months (Figure 1). This rebound effect was also seen on Ward B, on completion of the study. It is possible that the withdrawal of enhanced cleaning increased the risk for patient infection, since there were four new MRSA infections on Ward A 4 weeks after the cleaner left (February 2007) and two new infections on Ward B 2 weeks after the study finished (July 2007). Two of the strains from the first cluster on Ward A and both from Ward B in July were genotypically indistinguishable, so these could have been due to patient-to-patient spread without any help from a contaminated environment (Figure 2). The three strains from Ward A in February were different from each other and from MRSA strains from other patients on the ward. These could have occurred as individual episodes of acquisition from hands after touching contaminated environmental sites. The two new cases on Ward B were not included in the overall results of the study, since they occurred after the study had finished. Even if patient-to-patient transmission did occur, the first patient had to acquire MRSA from somewhere before spreading it to another. For each of the two-patient clusters with indistinguishable strains, an apparently similar strain was identified from an environmental source previously (Figure 2).
Only a small reduction in environmental MRSA was documented during the enhanced cleaning periods (Table 1). From previous studies, once-weekly screening of 10 sites throughout the whole ward would not have recovered many MRSA isolates, so this was expected . Similarly, there was little effect on environmental MSSA, with 30 isolates recovered when the wards were routinely cleaned, and 37 recovered during enhanced cleaning. It is known that one in three people carry, and potentially shed, MSSA, whilst the MRSA carriage rate is currently much lower. A larger study with increased frequency of screening might have provided a clearer result on the effect of extra cleaning on environmental MRSA and MSSA.
There were fewer new MRSA infections on the wards receiving extra cleaning over the year-long study. However, not every patient admitted to the wards was screened for MRSA, so making an association between fewer new infections and extra cleaning requires justification. Support for the association comes from the cross-over design, close matching of the wards and the fact that there were no changes in patient screening during the year; if patients outside of the usual high-risk groups for MRSA were admitted without screening, then this occurred consistently throughout the year and for both wards. In addition, given access to previous MRSA rates on the study wards, we were expecting 20 new cases on each ward during the year-long study. There were 10 cases on Ward A and only three on Ward B. We wondered whether the trial itself had some impact overall on the lower numbers of MRSA infections during the study. Staff were well informed about the study before it started.
Another potential confounder is the number of patients with MRSA on the ward. Greater numbers of patients with MRSA would make it more difficult to control the amount of MRSA in the ward, as well as the possibility that patients could pass it directly to each other. We found that there were actually more MRSA patient-days on both wards during the enhanced cleaning periods, especially for Ward B. This finding reinforces the likely impact of the extra cleaner, given the documented reduction in the number of new MRSA infections during extra cleaning periods. In addition, of all the MRSA strains recovered from patients with new infections on the ward at the same time, just two were regarded as indistinguishable during the study (Patients 14A and 15A; Table 3 and Figure 2), and two occurred after the study had finished (Patients 8B and 9B; Table 3 and Figure 2). All the other MRSA strains from cases with new infections were different, although we identified known patients with similar strains who had been resident on the ward previously. These patients had been discharged well before new cases had emerged with similar strains, because these wards were acute surgical wards and did not host long-stay patients.
High bed occupancy rates may also be associated with increased risk of MRSA acquisition, but there was little difference in occupancy rates between the wards, whether they were receiving extra cleaning or not (Table 1) [26-28]. Both wards were actually busier during their enhanced cleaning periods. In addition, higher bed occupancy rates are associated with an increased chance of finding higher ACC, including MRSA/MSSA, from hand-touch sites in the clinical environment [7,8]. This might go some way to explain the small effect from the extra cleaning on the amount of MRSA recovered, and the fact that there was actually more MSSA recovered when Ward B, in particular, was receiving extra cleaning.
We directed the study cleaners to clean hand-touch sites on clinical equipment. Routine cleaning adheres to specified procedures for all surface levels and clinical equipment . It appears that general surfaces receive more attention than others when there are time constraints; that is, staff are more likely to clean floors and toilets, than attend to handles, taps and other hand-touch surfaces [7,13,30]. Nurses are responsible for cleaning bedside areas and clinical equipment but they cannot clean these items properly when they are busy. Furthermore, the effects of a contaminated environment erode any benefits from increasing hand hygiene compliance . This further supports extra cleaning for a ward, particularly one with high bed occupancy, high turnover and nurse shortages .
There are several reports in the literature documenting the effect of enhanced cleaning, introduced with educational programs, in order to improve the quality of environmental cleaning [32-34]. These studies all report success in reducing environmental contamination from hospital pathogens, and one, using the presence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci as hygiene indicator, also demonstrated a reduction in the number of patients colonized with this organism . A more recent study describes the effect of vaporized hydrogen peroxide on Clostridium difficile in the environment . The results indicated a significant reduction in environmental contamination of C. difficile and in the incidence of C. difficile infection on five wards. The findings from these studies support the results presented here, in that the environment plays an important role in the acquisition of hospital infection and that cleaning or other decontamination methods protect patients from hospital pathogens [32-35].
In summary, this study has shown that one additional cleaner on two surgical wards over 1 year can have an impact on the microbial contamination of high-risk hand-touch sites. Molecular epidemiological methods supported the possibility that patients acquired MRSA from these sites. There is a suggestion that the number of new MRSA infections were reduced relative to the level of MRSA patient-days. Further studies on targeted cleaning of hand-touch sites would be justified in terms of the overall costs of managing MRSA.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
SD and CR designed this study; LW organised the environmental screening; JL set up and ran the microbiology database for patient monitoring; and KG performed all the molecular typing of patient and environmental isolates. Statistical analysis was completed by CR. SD analysed data and wrote the paper, with comments received from all authors. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
We wish to acknowledge UNISON and Greater Glasgow & Clyde NHS Trust for supporting this project. Warm thanks should also go to Dr. Penelope Redding and Mrs. Joan Higgins for robust advice. Both microbiology and domestic service departments deserve a mention, with a special acknowledgment to Mrs. Beth Anderson, whose exemplary cleaning produced the effects seen in this study.
1) Dancer SJ: Mopping up hospital infection. J.Hosp.Infect 1999, 43:85-100.
2) Dancer SJ: How do we assess hospital cleaning? A proposal for microbiological standards for surface hygiene in hospitals. J.Hosp. Infect 2004, 56:10-15.
3) Kramer A, Schwebke I, Kampf G: How long do nosocomial pathogens persist on inanimate surfaces? A systematic review. BMC. Infect. Dis 2006, 6:130.
4) Lemmen SW, Hafner H, Zolldan D, Stanzel S, Lutticken R: Distribution of multi-resistant Gram-negative versus Gram-positive bacteria in the hospital inanimate environment. J.Hosp. Infect 2004, 56:191-197.
5) Boyce J M, Potter-Bynoe G, Chenevert C, King T: Environmental contamination due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: possible infection control implications. Infect. Control. Hosp. Epidemiol.1997, 18:622-627.
6) Hardy KJ, Oppenheim BA, Gossain S, Gao F, Hawkey PM: A study of the relationship between environmental contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and patients’ acquisition of MRSA. Infect. Control. Hosp. Epidemiol. 2006, 27:127-32.
7) White L, Dancer SJ, Robertson C, McDonald J: Are hygiene standards useful in assessing infection risk? Am. J. Infect. Control 2008, 36:381-384.
8) Dancer SJ, White L, Robertson C: Monitoring environmental cleanliness on two surgical wards. Int. J. Environ. Hygiene 2008, 18:357-364.
9) Bhalla A, Pultz NJ, Gries DM, Ray AJ, Eckstein EC, Aron DC, Donskey CJ: Acquisition of nosocomial pathogens on hands after contact with environmental surfaces near hospitalised patients. Infect. Control. Hosp. Epidemiol 2004, 25:164-167.
10) Dancer SJ: Importance of the environment in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus acquisition: the case for hospital cleaning. Lancet. Infect. Dis 2008, 8:101-113.
11) Pittet D, Hugonnet S, Harbarth S, Mourouga P, Sauvan V, Touveneau S, Perneger TV: Effectiveness of a hospital-wide program to improve compliance with hand hygiene. Lancet. 2000, 356:13071312.
12) Kim PW, Roghmann MC, Perencevich EN, Harris AD: Rates of hand disinfection associated with glove use, patient isolation, and
changes between exposure to various body sites. Am. J. Infect. Control 2003, 31:97-103.
13) Dancer SJ, Coyne M, Speekenbrink A, Samavedam S, Kennedy J, Wallace PGM: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition in an intensive care unit. Am. J. Infect. Control 2006, 34:10-17.
14) White LF, Dancer SJ, Robertson: A microbiological evaluation of cleaning methods. Int. J. Environ. Health. Res 2007, 17:1-11.
15) Robicsek A, Beaumont JL, Paule SM, Hacek DM, Thomson RB Jr, Kaul KL, King P, Peterson LR: Universal surveillance for methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus in 3 affiliated hospitals. Ann. Intern. Med 2008, 148:409-418.
16) Reilly J, Stewart S, Allardice GA, Noone A, Robertson C, Walker A, Coubrough S: Results from the Scottish National HAI Prevalence Survey. J. Hosp. Infect. 2008, 69:62-68.
17) Obee P, Griffith CJ, Cooper RA, Bennion NE: An evaluation of different methods for the recovery of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from environmental surfaces. J. Hosp. Infect 2007, 65:35-41.
18) Lewis T, Griffith C, Gallo M, Weinbren M: A modified benchmark for evaluating the cleaning of some hospital environmental surfaces. J. Hosp. Infect 2008, 69:156-163.
19) Brakstad OG, Aasbakk K, Maeland JA: Detection of Staphylococcus aureus by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the nuc. gene. J. Clin. Microbiol 1992, 30:1654-1660.
20) Bignardi GE, Woodford N, Chapman A, Johnson AP, Speller DC: Detection of the mecA gene and phenotypic detection of resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates with borderline or low-level methicillin resistance. J. Antimicrob. Chemother 1996, 37:53-63.
21) Bannerman TL, Hancock GA, Tenover FC Miller JM: Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis as a replacement for bacteriophage typing of
Staphylococcus aureus. J. Clin. Microbiol 1995, 33:551-555.
22) Wagenvoort JHT: Dutch measures to control MRSA and the expanding European Union. Eurosurveillance 2000, 5:26-28.
23) Malik RE, Cooper RA, Griffith CJ: Use of audit tools to evaluate the efficacy of cleaning systems in hospitals. Am. J. Infect. Control 2003, 31:181-187.
24) Wernitz MH, Keck S, Swidsinski S, Schulz S, Veit SK: Cost analysis of a hospital-wide selective screening program for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers in the context of diagnosis related groups (DRG) payment. Clin. Microbiol. Infect 2005, 11:466-471.
25) Wendin R: The economics of patient safety: can you afford not to be safe? Marsh Europe S.A. Report commissioned by The Royal College of Physicians, London, 25 June, 2008 [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/2194132/Every-MRSA-casecosts-NHS-an-extra-and1639,000.html] (last accessed 4 June 2009).
26) Cunningham JB, Kernohan WG, Rush T: Bed occupancy, turnover intervals and MRSA rates in English hospitals. Br. J. Nurs 2006, 15:656-660.
27) Borg MA: Bed occupancy and overcrowding as determinant factors in the incidence of MRSA infections within general ward settings. J. Hosp. Infect 2003, 54:316-318.
28) Kibbler CC, Quick A, O’Neill AM: The effect of increased bed numbers on MRSA transmission in acute medical wards. J. Hosp. Infect 1998, 39:213-219.
29) National Cleaning Services Specification: NHS Scotland, September 2003.
30) Carling PC, Briggs JL, Perkins J, Highlander D: Improved cleaning of patient rooms using a new targeting method. Clin.Infect.Dis 2006, 42:385-388.
31) Beggs CB, Shepherd SJ, Kerr KG: Increasing the frequency of hand washing by healthcare workers does not lead to commensurate reductions in staphylococcal infection in a hospital ward. BMC. Infect. Dis 2008, 8:114.
32) Hayden MK, Bonten MJM, Blom DW, Lyle EA, van de Vijver DAMC, Weinstein RA: Reduction in acquisition of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus after enforcement of routine environmental cleaning measures. Clin. Infect. Dis 2006, 42:1552-1560.
33) Eckstein BC, Adams DA, Eckstein EC, Rao E, Sethi AK, Yadavalli GK, Donskey CJ: Reduction of Clostridium difficile and vancomycinresistant Enterococcus contamination of environmental surfaces after an intervention to improve cleaning methods. BMC Infectious Diseases 2007, 7:61.
34) Goodman ER, Platt R, Bass R, Onderdonk AB, Yokoe DS, Huang SS: Impact of an environmental cleaning intervention on the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci on surfaces in intensive care unit rooms. Infect. Control. Hosp. Epidemiol 2008, 29:593-599.
35) Boyce JM, Havill NL, Otter JA, McDonald LC, Adams NM, Cooper T, Thompson A, Wiggs L, Killgore G, Tauman A, Noble-Wang J: Impact of hydrogen peroxide vapor room decontamination on Clostridium difficile environmental contamination and transmission in a healthcare setting. Infect. Control. Hosp. Epidemiol. 2008, 29:723-729.
Fully formatted PDF and full text (HTML) versions will be made available soon.
BMC Medicine 2009, 7:28 doi:10.1186 /1741-7015-7-28
Stephanie J Dancer (email@example.com)
Liza F White (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Jim Lamb (email@example.com)
E Kirsty Girvan (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Chris Robertson (email@example.com)
Submission date 14 May 2009
Acceptance date 8 June 2009
Publication date 8 June 2009 Article URL http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/7/28
Like all articles in BMC journals, this peer-reviewed article was published immediately upon acceptance. It can be downloaded, printed and distributed freely for any purposes (see copyright notice below).
Articles in BMC journals are listed in PubMed and archived at PubMed Central. For information about publishing your research in BMC journals or any BioMed Central journal, go to http://www.biomedcentral.com/info/authors/
© 2009 Dancer et al. , licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Stephanie J Dancer 1,2, Liza F White 2, Jim Lamb 2, E Kirsty Girvan 3 and Chris Robertson 4
1 Department of Microbiology, Hairmyres Hospital, Eaglesham Road, East Kilbride, Scotland, UK
2 Department of Microbiology, Southern General Hospital, Govan Road, Glasgow, Scotland, UK
3 Scottish MRSA Reference Laboratory, Stobhill Hospital, Glasgow, Scotland, UK
4 Department of Statistics & Modelling Science, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, UK
Measuring the Effect of Enhanced Cleaning in a UK Hospital: A Prospective Cross-over Study : Created on June 21st, 2009. Last Modified on June 21st, 2009
Formerly a consultant microbiologist at the Southern General Hospital in Glasgow, Scotland (2005-7), Stephanie now works in NHS Lanarkshire and is the current editor of the Journal of Hospital Infection. She trained at St. Bartholomew's hospital in London (1977-83) followed by postgraduate studies in Pathology at Guy's hospital, where she produced a thesis on the epidemiology and biochemistry of toxin-producing staphylococci. She has worked in various remote areas of the world, including Papua New Guinea, Thailand, Vietnam and the Canadian High Arctic, where she resuscitated 30,000 year old organisms from glacial ice. She spent six years as the Infection Control Officer for Argyll before moving to Health Protection Scotland as their inaugural microbiologist (2002-5). There she set up MRSA surveillance for Scotland, evaluated real-time PCR for the rapid identification of MRSA and helped establish the Scottish Microbiology Forum. She has been an active member of several national working groups on antibiotic prescribing and hospital cleaning, and was a formal referee for the Scottish Health Technology Assessment on MRSA screening. At present she balances clinical and editorial duties with various research projects, specifically the role of antibiotics, screening and cleaning in the control of MRSA.
Dr. Stephanie J. Dancer
Department of Microbiology
Eaglesham Road, East Kilbride G75 8RG, UK.
Tel +44 (0)1355 585000
Fill in the form below for basic site access (commenting, etc).
Looking for more? Become a CIRI Member...