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Deaths from MRSA
Nearly 19,000 Americans died in 2005 of invasive infections caused by drug-resistant staphylococcus bacteria - more than were killed by AIDS.
Journal of the American Medical Association
By S.M. Zakir Hossain, Cory Ozimok, Clemence Sicard, Sergio D. Aguirre, M. Monsur Ali, Yingfu Li, John D. Brennan
Rapid, sensitive, on-site detection of bacteria without a need for sophisticated equipment or skilled personnel is extremely important in clinical settings and rapid response scenarios, as well as in resource-limited settings. Here, we report a novel approach for selective and ultra-sensitive multiplexed detection of Escherichia coli (non-pathogenic or pathogenic) using a lab-on-paper test strip (bioactive paper) based on intracellular enzyme (Beta-galactosidase (B-GAL) or Beta-glucuronidase (GUS)) activity. The test strip is composed of a paper support (0.5×8 cm), onto which either 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-Beta-D-glucuronide sodium salt (XG), chlorophenol red Beta-galactopyranoside (CPRG) or both and FeCl3 were entrapped using sol– gel-derived silica inks in different zones via an ink-jet printing technique. The sample was lysed and assayed via lateral flow through the FeCl3 zone to the substrate area to initiate rapid enzyme hydrolysis of the substrate, causing a change from colorless-to-blue (XG hydrolyzed by GUS, indication of nonpathogenic E. coli) and/or yellow to red-magenta (CPRG hydrolyzed by B-GAL, indication of total coliforms). Using immunomagnetic nanoparticles for selective preconcentration, the limit of detection was ~5 colony-forming units (cfu) per milliliter for E. coli O157:H7 and ~20 cfu/mL for E. coli BL21, within 30 min without cell culturing. Thus, these paper test strips could be suitable for detection of viable total coliforms and pathogens in bathing water samples. Moreover, inclusion of a culturing step allows detection of less than 1 cfu in 100 mL within 8 h, making the paper tests strips relevant for detection of multiple pathogens and total coliform bacteria in beverage and food samples.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Volume 403, Number 6 (2012), 1567-1576, DOI: 10.1007/s00216-012-5975-x
S.M. Zakir Hossain
Sergio D. Aguirre
M. Monsur Ali
John D. Brennan
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology
1280 Main St. West
Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1, Canada
Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences
1200 Main St. West
Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5, Canada
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