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The School Environment
In the United States there are about 120,000 schools providing for the educational needs of approximately 54 million students. On average, students receive about 20% of their environmental exposure in schools.
Dr. Michael A. Berry
By Terpstra FG; van den Blink AE; Bos LM; Boots AG; Brinkhuis FH; Gijsen E; van Remmerden Y; Schuitemaker H; van 't Wout AB
It is believed that surface-dried viruses can remain infectious and may therefore pose a threat to public health. To help address this issue, we studied 0.1 N NaOH and 0.1% hypochlorite for their capacity to inactivate surface-dried lipid-enveloped (LE) [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV)] and non-lipid-enveloped [NLE; canine parvovirus (CPV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV)] viruses in a background of either plasma or culture medium. In addition, 80% ethanol was tested on surface-dried LE viruses. Without treatment, surface-dried LE viruses remained infectious for at least one week and NLE viruses for more than one month. Irrespective of the disinfectant, inactivation decreased for viruses dried in plasma, which is more representative of viral contaminated blood than virus in culture medium. Inactivation by all disinfectants improved when preceded by rehydration, although the infectivity of CPV actually increased after rehydration and disinfection may thus be overestimated in the absence of rehydration. This is the first comprehensive study of five important (model) viruses in a surface-dried state showing persistence of infectivity, resistance to three commonly used disinfectants and restoration of susceptibility after rehydration. Our results may have implications for hygiene measurements in the prevention of virus transmission.
Resistance of surface-dried virus to common disinfection procedures.
Terpstra FG - J Hosp Infect - 01-AUG-2007; 66(4): 332-8
From NIH/NLM MEDLINE
The Journal of Hospital Infection
Sanquin Research, Landsteiner Laboratory, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. email@example.com
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